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Luras is a village of about 2500 inhabitants in the northern Sardinian province of Tempio-Olbia.


Lurisincu is a Logudorese enclave in the Gallurese area. Due to contact with Gallurese, Lurese has obliterated gender distinctions in plural forms of articles, object pronouns, adjectives, and participles. Moreover, a peculiar personal pronoun system has emerged, in which three third person forms co-occur: issɛ, unmarked for gender, and two gender-inflected forms, issu vs. issa (‘he’ vs ‘she’).
The latter are used only for purposes of disambiguation (cf. Loporcaro 2006b; 2012). For instance, in (1) the unmarked form issɛ is used first, then issu and issa are introduced in (2) to disambiguate the referent of the preceding pronoun. The pattern has not been observed elsewhere in Romance and, from a typological point of view, it does not correspond to any known system reported in Siewierska’s (2005) WALS map.

(1) Q:   kiɛ ɛilj vénnišu ?
           ‘who came?’

     A:   issɛ
           ‘it’s him/her’

(2) Q:   ma issu o issa?
           ‘well, but [do you mean] him or her?’

For a more detailed description of Lurisincu and its relevance to the study of agreement, please refer to the overview written by Serena Romagnoli.

  • Depperu, P. 2006. Vocabolario lurisinco. Dizionario logudorese della parlata di Luras. Sassari: Libreria Koinč.
  • Loporcaro, M. 2006a. 'Sul logudorese di Luras e sul suo nuovo vocabolario' in P. Depperu, Vocabbolariu lurisincu. Dizionario logudorese della parlata di Luras. Sassari: Libreria Koinč, 9-11.
  • Loporcaro, M. 2006b. 'Contatto e mutamento linguistico in Sardegna settentrionale: il caso di Luras' Revue de Linguistique Romane, 70:321-349.
  • Loporcaro, M. 2008. 'Contatto e mutamento linguistico in Sardegna settentrionale: il caso di Luras' in S. Heinemann & P. Videsott (eds.), Sprachwandel und (Dis-)Kontinuität in der Romania. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 129-138.
  • Loporcaro, M. 2012. 'Contact-induced change in personal pronouns: some Romance examples' in M. Vanhove, T. Stolz, A. Urdze & H. Otsuka (eds.), Morphologies in contact. Berlin: Akademie Verlag [Studia Typologica, STUF Beiheft 10], 207-25.

  • Loporcaro, M. 2015. 'The impact of morphology on change in agreement systems' in J. Fleischer, E. Rieken & P. Widmer  (eds.), Agreement from a Diachronic Perspective. Berlin: De Gruyter, 103-126.
  • Loporcaro, M. 2018. Gender from Latin to Romance: history, geography, typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Loporcaro, M., S. Romagnoli & M. Wild. (forth.). 'Unstable personal pronouns in Northern Logudorese' in B. Baldi, L. Franco, M. Grimaldi & R. Lai (eds.), Structuring Variation in Romance Linguistics and Beyond. Studies in Honour of Leonardo M. Savoia [Linguistik Aktuell-Linguistics Today], Amsterdam, John Benjamins.
  • Loporcaro, M., S. Romagnoli & M. Wild. 2017. 'Pronomi personali instabili in logudorese settentrionale' Talk delivered at the 12th Cambridge Italian Dialect Syntax-Morphology Meeting (CIDSM 12), University of Cambridge, 3-5 July 2017.